Three conditions determine the peculiarity of Bengali imagination. Firstly, her historical and geographical ecology, secondly, the stagnancy of its production methods, and thirdly, the parallel existence of its folk elements.

The administrative map of Bangladesh was not the same in all ages. The people of Bangladesh are also varied. The eras of Angas, Palas, Pathans, Moguls indicate, there never was a definite administrative border and so the mentality of administrative map. On the other hand, with the evolution of BANGA or BANGLA language, the gulf remained between the language-speaking groups and her administrative map. But, the evolution of BANGA or BANGLA marks the evolution of its historic consciousness. In the earliest historical period BANGA used to denote a definite land but eventually a much greater land was identified as Bengal where grades of many different even self-contradictory cultures collided or coexisted. Since the stages of development were not equal and similar the cultural sameness could not be established or evolved in spite of the political or administrative equation.

The name BANGA is laden with historical memory. Various consciousness deriving from different professional categories created diversified rather stratified culture. Yet the underlying unity of tone is there. In spite of the existence of various communities of professional or religious group, the basic unity of this culture remained unperturbed because of the static and stagnant nature of its economy. The cultural unity came from this non-changing aspect of life. Despite the changes in religious belief, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam, the basic structure of the material culture remained undisturbed and repetitive. This repetitive culture lacks freshness and individualized expression. So, the traditional way of living intensified the regionalism. At the centers of urban culture, Sanskrit during Buddhist and Hindu period, and Arabic and Persian during the Moslem rule, remained the language of media for this court culture. So, the regional rural culture did not get the impact of these far-off efforts and lifestyle. The court culture produced a sort of unreal half-urban language and literary convention. The prominence of this culture and tradition lasted till the 19th century.

On the other hand the 'Punthi' literature was tiresome due to lack of diversification of interests. Yet, during the same period, limericks, rhymes, proverbs, ballads, seasonal ballads, all sprang from the common language of the people. One gets a different taste and touch altogether. These have limited surprises clear and sharp satire and wonderfully keen awareness of life and nature. In the language of Punthi literature the impact of the individual is negative from beginning to the end. Material-wise the Punthi literature seems to be depicting one symbolical man, monotonous and idealized without any life.


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